Glaucoma is an eye disease in which the optic nerve is damaged in a characteristic pattern. This can permanently damage vision in the affected eye(s) and lead to blindness if left untreated.
It is normally associated with increased fluid pressure in the eye. The term “ocular hypertension” is used for people with consistently raised intraocular pressure (IOP) without any associated optic nerve damage. Conversely, the term ‘normal tension’ or ‘low tension’ glaucoma is used for those with optic nerve damage and associated visual field loss, but normal or low IOP.
Raised intraocular pressure (above 21 mmHg) is the most important and only modifiable risk factor for glaucoma. Untreated glaucoma can lead to permanent damage of the optic nerve and resultant visual field loss, which over time can progress to blindness.
Glaucoma can be roughly divided into two main categories, open & closed angle respectively.
Closed-angle glaucoma can appear suddenly and is often painful and visual loss can progress quickly, but the discomfort often leads patients to seek medical attention before permanent damage occurs.
Open-angle, chronic glaucoma tends to progress at a slower rate and patients may not notice they have lost vision until the disease has progressed significantly. Glaucoma has been called the “silent thief of sight” because the loss of vision often occurs gradually over a long period of time, and symptoms only occur when the disease is quite advanced.
The modern goals of glaucoma management are to avoid glaucomatous damage and nerve damage, and preserve visual field and total quality of life for patients, with minimal side effects. Intraocular pressure can be lowered with medications, usually eye drops. Several different classes of medications are used to treat glaucoma, with several different medications in each class.
Both laser and conventional surgeries are performed to treat glaucoma.
Argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT) may be used to treat open-angle glaucoma. It is a temporary solution, not a cure. A newer type of laser trabeculoplasty uses a “cold” (non-thermal) laser to stimulate drainage in the trabecular meshwork. This newer procedure called selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT), selectively targets melanin pigment in the trabecular meshwork cells. SLT may be repeated three to four times.
Laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) may be used in patients susceptible to or affected by closed angle.
The most common conventional surgery performed for glaucoma is the trabeculectomy. Sometimes this surgery combined with use of chemotherapeutic agents, most commonly Mitomycin C (MMC, 0.5-0.2 mg/ml) or 5 Florouracil (5-FU, 50 mg/ml), are used locally on the surgical site as indicated. Glaucoma patients not responding to maximal medical therapy, with previous failed guarded filtering surgery (trabeculectomy) often can be treated with glaucoma drainage implant shunt surgeries. In indicated cases, laser therapy to reduce the eye pressure is also used called “Transscleral Cyclophotocoagulation” using 810 nm diode laser.
Ahmed Valve glaucoma surgery is performed in difficult glaucoma surgery with great success.
Meet Our Team
Our team of highly qualified and experienced physicians drawn from across the world
- Dr. Sandip Mitra has more than 20 years of experience and a fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons in Edinburgh and London. He specializes in Ophthalmology and performs the following surgeries: LASIK, Macular Degeneration Surgery, Vitrectomy and more. His Medical practice has been associated with various reputed hospitals in the United Arab Emirates, Australia and the U.K. During his career, Dr. Sandip Mitra has performed more than 10,000 refractive procedures, 30,000 cataract surgeries, and 10,000 corneal grafts.
- Dr. Sivakami A Pai is a Vitreo-retinal surgeon with 25 years of experience in Ophthalmology. She is expert in medical, surgical management of Vitreo-retinal diseases, cataract surgeries, ocular trauma, UVEA and ROP. She has been practicing in UAE for last 14 years and worked in reputed government and private hospitals.
- Dr. Gurdeep Singh, originally from India, graduated with a Bachelor degree in Medicine with honors. After finishing a three-year ophthalmology residency followed by a fellowship in Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus at the Aravind Eye Hospital the largest eye care system in the world. After finishing his fellowship he joined as a medical consultant in Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus in Aravind Eye Hospital where he held a teaching post and gained advanced experience in Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus and adult Laser Cataract surgery and Laser Lacrimal surgery.
Blogs, guides, videos and other downloadable resources
Fun Day at the Beach Turns to Nightmare for Tourist who Underwent Multiple Surgeries After Being Stung by Jellyfish in Dubai
Dubai, UAE (xx/xx/xxxx): A 55-year-old woman, C.K., from Switzerland visited Dubai during her vacation where she was stung by a jellyfish, leading to severe limb-threatening symptoms and complications. Due to the sting the patient had an extremely swollen arm with major blocked arteries, affecting its function
The Perks of the Relex Smile Procedure for Vision Problems with Dr. Sandip Mitra, Consultant Ophthalmologist
There are numerous laser eye surgeries out there, making it difficult to decide what the best option is. Laser vision correction is a decision that must be taken with high importance, since it has a large impact on one’s life and future. Being freed of your glasses or contacts is an exciting part of the whole process, however there are other steps and considerations that one should acknowledge