Soft tissue sarcoma is a rare cancer that starts in the soft tissues of the body, it usually rises from soft tissue including fat, muscles, nerves, tendons, and blood and lymph vessels. Sarcomas can happen anywhere in the body, half (about 40 percent) occur in the arms and legs.
While melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer, these cancerous growths develop when unrepaired DNA damage to skin cells (most often caused by ultraviolet radiation from sunshine or tanning beds) triggers mutations (genetic defects) that lead the skin cells to multiply rapidly and form malignant tumors. These tumors originate in the pigment-producing melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis. Melanomas often resemble moles; some develop from moles. The majority of melanomas are black or brown, but they can also be skin-colored, pink, red, purple, blue or white. Melanoma is caused mainly by intense, occasional UV exposure (frequently leading to sunburn), especially in those who are genetically predisposed to the disease.
Our surgeons, oncologists and radiologists, pathologists use a multidisciplinary approach (MDT) including a physical exam, imaging tests, or a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis and determine the stage of the disease
Depending on the stage of the disease our experts may recommend treatment with surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, or multimodality combination therapy. Expertise of HIPC and Limb infusion with target immunotherapy are also available.
Patient points of Interest
- Fibrous Tumors
- Acral melanoma
- Soft tissue tumors
- Pigmented skin lesions
- Sentinel LN Bx
- Gamma Probe
- Lymph node dissection
- Blue dye
- Limb infusion
- Target therapy
- The immunotherapy drugs are ipilimumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab, and talimogene laherparepvec.
- Mohs Surgery
- Nodular melanoma
- Metastatic sarcoma & Melanoma
- Resection margin
- PET Scan
- Survival of tumor
- Skin graft, flaps, and free flap
- Frozen Section evaluation
- Tertiary Center of Referral
- Day Surgery
- Retroperitoneal sarcoma
- Limb Sarcoma
- Neoadjuvant Radiation
- Second opinion
Types of Sarcoma
There are more than 70 types of soft tissue sarcoma or sarcoma-like growths. The risk and seriousness of each varies widely depending on the type, which is diagnosed according to where in the body the cancer started. Soft tissue sarcoma that arises in:
- Smooth muscle is called leiomyosarcoma
- Sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract is called gastrointestinal stromal tumor
- Fatty tissue (also called adipose tissue) is called liposarcoma
- Sarcoma of the peripheral nervous system is called malignant schwannoma or malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor
- Sarcoma of blood vessels is called angiosarcoma, hemangioendothelioma, hemangiopericytoma, or solitary fibrous tumor
- Connective tissue is called fibrosarcoma, dermatofibrosarcoma, low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma or fibromatosis
Soft tissue sarcoma tumors can also affect more than one type of body tissue, or have no clear origin. This is the case for alveolar soft part sarcoma, clear cell sarcoma (malignant melanoma of soft parts), epithelioid sarcoma, synovial sarcoma, and undifferentiated soft tissue sarcoma.
Certain inherited medical conditions, such as neurofibromatosis, Gardner’s syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and retinoblastoma, can make a person more susceptible to developing soft tissue sarcoma.But most of the time, there’s no clear reason why this cancer develops. Some types are more common for people of certain age groups, however. For example, rhabdomyosarcoma appears more often in children than in adults, and synovial sarcoma is more common in adolescents.
Our Team will guide the patient and the family step by step through all stages of the diagnosis and treatment plan to achieve results based on international guidelines and bench marks.
Types of Melanoma
The Four Basic Types Melanomas fall into four basic categories. Three of them begin in situ — meaning they occupy only the top layers of the skin — and sometimes become invasive; the fourth is invasive from the start. Invasive melanomas are more serious, as they have penetrated deeper into the skin and may have spread to other areas of the body.
Superficial spreading melanoma is by far the most common type, accounting for about 70 percent of all cases. This is the one most often seen in young people. As the name suggests, this melanoma grows along the top layer of the skin for a fairly long time before penetrating more deeply.
The first sign is the appearance of a flat or slightly raised discolored patch that has irregular borders and is somewhat asymmetrical in form. The color varies, and you may see areas of tan, brown, black, red, blue or white. This type of melanoma can occur in a previously benign mole. The melanoma can be found almost anywhere on the body, but is most likely to occur on the trunk in men, the legs in women, and the upper back in both.
Lentigo maligna is similar to the superficial spreading type, as it also remains close to the skin surface for quite a while, and usually appears as a flat or mildly elevated mottled tan, brown or dark brown discoloration. This type of in situ melanoma is found most often in the elderly, arising on chronically sun-exposed, damaged skin on the face, ears, arms and upper trunk. Lentigo maligna is the most common form of melanoma in Hawaii. When this cancer becomes invasive, it is referred to as lentigo maligna melanoma.
Acral lentiginous melanoma also spreads superficially before penetrating more deeply. It is quite different from the others, though, as it usually appears as a black or brown discoloration under the nails or on the soles of the feet or palms of the hands. This type of melanoma is sometimes found on dark-skinned people, and can often advance more quickly than superficial spreading melanoma and lentigo maligna. It is the most common melanoma in African-Americans and Asians, and the least common among Caucasians.
Nodular melanoma is usually invasive at the time it is first diagnosed. The malignancy is recognized when it becomes a bump. It is usually black, but occasionally is blue, gray, white, brown, tan, red or skin tone.
The most frequent locations are the trunk, legs, and arms, mainly of elderly people, as well as the scalp in men. This is the most aggressive of the melanomas, and is found in 10 to 15 percent of cases.
Both UVA and UVB rays are dangerous to the skin, and can induce skin cancer, including melanoma. Blistering sunburns in early childhood especially increase risk, but sunburns later in life and cumulative exposure also may be factors. People who live in locations that have more sunlight — like Florida, Hawaii, and Australia — develop more skin cancers, but some more northern locations with light-skinned populations also have a high number of skin cancers. Avoid using a tanning booth or tanning bed, since it increases your exposure to UV rays, raising your risk of developing melanoma and other skin cancers.
There are two kinds of moles: normal moles — the small brown blemishes, growths, or “beauty marks” that appear in the first few decades of life in almost everyone — and atypical moles, also known as dysplastic nevi. Atypical moles can be precursors to melanoma, and having them puts you at increased risk of melanoma. But regardless of type, the more moles you have, the greater your risk for melanoma.
As with all skin cancers, people with fairer skin (who often have lighter hair and eye color as well) are at increased risk.
Compromised immune systems as the result of chemotherapy, an organ transplant, excessive sun exposure, and diseases such as HIV/AIDS or lymphoma can increase your risk of melanoma.
Orthopedic Oncology (Click here to download)
[bt_carousel uid=”1495516614-5923c5c6d3cb3″ target=”_blank” width=”0″ thumbnail_width=”250″ thumbnail_height=”167″ items_visible=”3″ scroll=”item” show_title=”yes” centered=”yes” arrows=”yes” pagination=”bullet” autoplay=”2000″ speed=”600″][bt_image src=”images/doctors/small/dr-sadir-alrawi-s.jpg” title=”Dr.Sadir Alrawi” link=”http://azhd.ae/oncology-cancer-center-in-dubai/118-oncology-doctors/586-dr-sadir-alrawi”][bt_image src=”images/doctors/small/dr-mohsin-azzam-s.jpg” title=”Dr. Mohsin Azzam” link=”http://azhd.ae/orthopaedics/102-orthopaedics-doctors/1019-dr-mohsin-azam”][bt_image src=”images/doctors/small/dr.ali-aldameh.jpg” title=”Dr. Ali Aldameh” link=”http://azhd.ae/oncology-cancer-center-in-dubai/118-oncology-doctors/894-dr-ali-aldameh”][bt_image src=”images/doctors/small/dr.paul_sayad.jpg” title=”Dr.Paul Sayad” link=”http://azhd.ae/oncology-cancer-center-in-dubai/118-oncology-doctors/631-dr-paul-sayad”][/bt_carousel]